Дурак: лучшие приложения и сайты для игры на телефоне или компьютере
What is дурак and why is it popular in Russia and beyond?
Have you ever heard of дурак? If you are familiar with Russian culture, language, or card games, you probably have. But what does it mean, how do you play it, and why is it so popular? In this article, we will explore the fascinating world of дурак, the fool.
The meaning and origin of дурак
дурак as a word and an insult
Дурак (durak) is a Russian word that literally means "fool", "idiot", or "simpleton". It is often used as an insult or a term of endearment, depending on the context and the tone. For example, you can call someone a дурак if they do something stupid or silly, or if you want to tease them or express affection. You can also use it as an interjection to express surprise, disbelief, or annoyance.
Дурак is derived from the word дур (dur), which means "brutal", "boorish", or "stupid". It is also related to the word дурить (durit'), which means "to fool", "to deceive", or "to make crazy". Дура (dura) is the feminine form of дурак, while дурачок (durachok) and дурашка (durashka) are diminutive forms that can be used to soften the insult or to show affection.
дурак as a card game and a cultural phenomenon
Дурак is also the name of a traditional Russian card game that is popular in many post-Soviet states and other parts of the world. It is Russia's most popular card game, having displaced Preferans. It is a shedding-type game, where the objective is to get rid of all one's cards when there are no more cards left in the deck. At the end of the game, the last player with cards in their hand is the durak or "fool".
The game is attributed to have appeared in late 18th century Russian Empire and was popularized by Imperial Army conscripts during the 1812 Russo-French war. Initially a social pastime of uneducated peasants and industrial workers, after the October Revolution Durak has spread to numerous social levels by mid-20th century to soon become the most popular Soviet card game.
The rules and variations of дурак
The basic setup and objective of дурак
The game is typically played with two to six players, using a deck of 36 cards, for example a standard 52-card deck from which the numerical cards 2 through 5 have been removed. In theory, the limit for a game with one deck of 36 cards is six players, but this extends a considerable advantage to the player who attacks first, and a considerable disadvantage to the player who defends first. Variants exist that use more than one deck.
The deck is shuffled, and each player is dealt six cards. The bottom card of the stock is turned and placed face up on the table, its suit determining the trump suit for the current deal. For example, if it is the 7 of diamonds, then diamonds rank higher than all plain-suit cards. The rest of the pack is then placed face down on top of the trump card, forming the draw pile. The player to the dealer's left begins the game as the first attacker. The player to the attacker's left is always the defender.
The gameplay and strategies of дурак
The game is played in rounds, where each round consists of an attack by one player and a defense by another. The attacker begins by playing one card face up on the table as an attacking card. The defender must respond to the attack by playing a higher-ranking card of the same suit as the attack card, or any card of the trump suit (unless the attack card is itself a trump, in which case only a higher trump can be used to defend). For example, if the attack card is the 10 of clubs, and clubs are not trumps, then the defender can play any card of clubs with a rank of jack or higher, or any trump card. If the defender cannot or does not want to defend against the attack, they must pick up the attack card and add it to their hand.
If the defender successfully defends against the attack card, the attacker can continue the attack by playing another card of the same rank as any of the cards already played during this round. For example, if the first attack card was a 10 of clubs, and the defender played a jack of clubs, then the attacker can play another 10 (of any suit) as a new attack card. The defender must again respond with a higher-ranking card of the same suit or a trump. The attacker can play up to six cards in one round, or fewer if they run out of cards or choose to stop. However, they cannot play more cards than the defender has in their hand.
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If the defender defends against all attack cards in a round, they have won that round, and all cards played during that round are discarded to a waste pile. The defender becomes the new attacker for the next round, and both players draw new cards from the draw pile until they have six cards in their hand (or fewer if there are not enough cards left). If there are no more cards in the draw pile, then players do not replenish their hands.
If at any point during a round, the defender cannot or does not want to defend against an attack card, they have lost that round, and must take all cards played during that round and add them to their hand. The attacker remains the attacker for the next round, and does not draw any new cards. The player to their left becomes the new defender. The game continues until one player has no cards left in their hand, and is declared the winner. The last player with cards in their hand is the durak or "fool", and may be subject to some playful mockery or a minor forfeit.
The common variations and adaptations of дурак
There are many variations and adaptations of дурак, some of which are regional, some of which are personal, and some of which are invented on the spot. Here are some of the most common ones:
Podkidnoy durak (throw-in fool): This is the most common and standard version of дурак, as described above. It is also known as classic or original дурак.
Perekidnoy durak (transfer fool): This is a variation where the defender can transfer the attack to the next player by playing a card of the same rank as the attack card, instead of a higher card of the same suit or a trump. For example, if the attack card is a 10 of clubs, and clubs are not trumps, then the defender can play any other 10 (of any suit) to transfer the attack to the next player. The next player must then defend against the original attack card and any other cards played by the attacker. The defender can only transfer the attack if they have not yet defended against any cards in that round.
Perevodnoy durak (translate fool): This is a variation where the defender can change the suit of the attack card by playing a card of the same rank as the attack card, but of a different suit. For example, if the attack card is a 10 of clubs, and clubs are not trumps, then the defender can play a 10 of hearts to change the suit of the attack to hearts. The attacker must then continue the attack with a higher card of hearts or a trump. The defender can only change the suit of the attack if they have not yet defended against any cards in that round.
Bespodkidnoy durak (without throw-ins fool): This is a variation where the attacker can only play one card per round, instead of up to six cards of the same rank as any of the cards already played. This makes the game simpler and faster, but also less strategic and fun.
Mizer durak (miser fool): This is a variation where the objective is reversed: instead of trying to get rid of all one's cards, one tries to keep as many cards as possible. The player who runs out of cards first is the durak or "fool", and the player who has the most cards left in their hand is the winner. This variation is usually played with a special rule that allows the attacker to play any card they want, regardless of the rank or suit of the previous cards played.
Prostoy durak (simple fool): This is a variation where there are no trumps, and all suits are equal. This makes the game more random and less skillful, but also more accessible and fair.
Team durak (team fool): This is a variation where players can form teams of two or more, and cooperate against the other teams. The teams can communicate with each other, and share cards and information. The game ends when one team has no cards left in their hands, and they are declared the winners. The team with the last player with cards in their hand is the durak or "fool".
The cultural significance and examples of дурак
дурак as a symbol of Russian humor and mentality
Дурак is more than just a card game; it is also a reflection of Russian humor and mentality. Russians love to joke about themselves and others, and often use дурак as a playful insult or a self-deprecating remark. For example, they might say "Я дурак, я не знаю" ("I am a fool, I don't know") to express ignorance or uncertainty, or "Ты дурак, ты не понимаешь" ("You are a fool, you don't un